International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property


N.B.: General country data and external links have been provided by the Member State. * Uploaded: 06/2020

General Country data

The main cultural assets of Pakistan

Pakistan is a culturally rich country which can its history back to the Stone Age and with evolution processes going through various eras of history reaching the colonial period of British Raj of 19th century. Pakistan's main cultural heritage assets include archaeological sites, stupas, forts, shrines, tombs, buildings, residences, monuments, and places of worship. There are various number of components belong to the intangible cultural heritage of Pakistan like folk music, rich traditions and life style of specific communities like the Kalsaha people of Pakistan. The Department of Archaeology and Museums of the Government of Pakistan is the custodian of the nation’s tangible and intangible cultural heritage and, in this capacity, is almost the sole agency to protect and preserve its master pieces in the shape of immovable sites and monuments and the movable antiquities as well as works of art. In this context, the Department of Archaeology and Museums is securing International assistance and mobilizing the world’s opinion for the protection of cultural heritage of Pakistan, renovating museums, establishing scientific institutions, and organizing and mounting international exhibitions showing the cultural heritage of Pakistan. The Department of Archaeology and Museums has protected 405 archaeological sites and monuments in the country.

The legal framework on cultural heritage conservation

The following functions of the Department of Archaeology and Museums are regulated by the legal application of the following Acts and Legislations:

  • UNESCO conventions on the Conservation of Cultural Heritage
  • Conservation manual and charters
  • The Antiquities Act, 1975 and Rules made there under i.e. a) Archaeological Excavation and Exploration Rules, 1978; b) Mining Quarrying and Blasting in the restricted Area Rules, 1979; c) Cinematographically Filming of Protected Antiquities Rules, 1980; d) Dealing in Antiquities Rules, 1989; and e) Acquisition of Antiquities Rules, 1989.

The cultural and natural sites on the World Heritage List

The following sites and monuments of Pakistan are inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List:

  • Mohenjo-Daro
  • Taxila
  • Takht-e-Bahi, Distt, Mardan
  • Historical Monuments at Makli, Thatta
  • Fort & Shalimar Garden, Lahore
  • Rohtas Fort, Distt Jhelum

Adhesion to ICCROM

Pakistan is a Member State of ICCROM since 30/10/1963


Mandates in ICCROM Council since 1958:

  • 1973-1975: Chaudhry Ullah Rehmat
  • 1983-1984: Muhammad Ishtia Khan
  • 1990-1992: Ahmad Nabi Khan

ICCROM Staff since 1959: - None -

Involvement of Pakistani Nationals

Activities in/with Pakistan since 2002

Activities details

Activities details

  • 2002 - 1 Mission(s)
  • 2003 - 1 Technical assistance(s)
  • 2005 - 1 Mission(s)
  • 2006 - 1 Mission(s), 1 Technical assistance(s)
  • 2007 - 1 Technical assistance(s)
  • 2010 - 1 Technical assistance(s)
  • 2011 - 1 Technical assistance(s)

* ICCROM reserves the right to moderate the content provided by Member States for country profiles to ensure that they remain within the scope of ICCROM’s mission and pertinent to cultural heritage. However, ICCROM does not take responsibility for the accuracy and validity of the content supplied. The ideas and opinions expressed are those of the Member States.